I have NO IDEA what this is. I hope that you do. I purchased this device in a "cabinet with contents" type of deal, in a bankrupt shop that used a lot of Brown and Sharpe screw machines. They were making little cute parts with them. The only reason why I think it is Brown and Sharpe screw machine part is that it says B S (but that could stand for something other than Brown and Sharpe, as you know), and looks like it could fir screw machines.
Based on my life experience, I suspect that this is a auxiliary pump of some sort. It seems to not have been ever mounted (looking at plugs and bolt holes).